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Glossary of Printing & Graphic Terms D to I

Published Time:2015-11-03 Original Source:Glossary of Printing

 Glossary of Printing & Graphic Terms

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This glossary includes all the technical and business terms in printing.

D

 

Double Density

A method of recording electronically (disk, CD, floppy) using a modified frequency to allow more data storage.

Double Dot Halftone

Halftone double burned onto one plate from two halftones, one shot for shadows, the second shot for midtones and highlights.

Doubling

Printing defect appearing as blurring or shadowing of the image. Doubling may be caused by problems with paper, cylinder alignment, blanket pressures or dirty cylinders.

DPI

Considered as "dots per square inch," a measure of output resolution in relationship to printers, imagesetters and monitors.

Drawdown

Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate specified for a job. Also called pulldown.

Drill

In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.

Dropout

Halftone dots or fine lines eliminated from highlights by overexposure during camera work.

Dropout Halftone

Halftone in which contrast has been increased by eliminating dots from highlights.

Dry Back

Phenomenon of printed ink colors becoming less dense as the ink dries.

Dry Offset

Using metal plates in the printing process, which are etched to .15mm (.0006 in) creating a right reading plate, printed on the offset blanket transferring to paper without the use of water.

Dry Trap

To print over dry ink, as compared to wet trap.

Dual-purpose Bond Paper

Bond paper suitable for printing by either lithography (offset) or xerography (photocopy). Abbreviated DP bond paper.

Dull Finish

Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish.

Dummy

Simulation of the final product. Also called mockup.

Duotone

Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal values in the original.

Duplex Paper

Thick paper made by pasting highlights together two thinner sheets, usually of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper.

Duplicator

Offset press made for quick printing.

Dylux

Brand name for photographic paper used to make blue line proofs. Often used as alternate term for blueline.

E

Electronic Front End (Electronic Composition)

General term referring to a prepress system based on computers.

Electronic Image Assembly

Assembly of a composite image from portions of other images and/or other page elements using a computer.

Electronic Mechanical

Mechanical exclusively in electronic files.

Electronic Publishing

(1) Publishing by printing with device, such as a photocopy machine or ink jet printer, driven by a computer that can change the image instantly from one copy to the next. (2) Publishing via output on fax, computer bulletin board or other electronic medium, as compared to output on paper.

Emboss

To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called cameo and tool.

Emulsion

Casting of light-sensitive chemicals on papers, films, printing plates and stencils.

Emulsion Down/Emulsion Up

Film whose emulsion side faces down (away from the viewer) or up (toward the viewer) when ready to make a plate or stencil. Abbreviated ED, EU. Also called E up/down and face down/face up.

Encapsulated PostScript file

Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands. Abbreviated EPS file.

End Sheet

Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover. Also called pastedown or end papers.

English Finish

Smooth finish on uncoated book paper; smoother than eggshell, rougher than smooth.

Engraving

Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface.

EP

Abbreviation for envelope.

EPS

Encapsulated Post Script, a known file format usually used to transfer post script information from one program to another.

Equivalent Paper

Paper that is not the brand specified, but looks, prints and may cost the same. . Also called comparable stock.

Estimate

Price that states what a job will probably cost. Also called bid, quotation and tender.

Estimator

The individual performing or creating the "estimate."

Etch

To use chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass or film.

F

Face

Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge. Also, an abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general style.

Fake Duotone

Halftone in one ink color printed over screen tint of a second ink color. Also called dummy duotone, dougraph, duplex halftone, false duotone, flat tint halftone and halftone with screen.

Fast Color Inks

Inks with colors that retain their density and resist fading as the product is used and washed.

Feeding Unit

Component of a printing press that moves paper into the register unit.

Felt Finish

Soft woven pattern in text paper.

Felt Side

Side of the paper that was not in contact with the Fourdrinier wire during papermaking, as compared to wire side.

Fifth Color

Ink color used in addition to the four needed by four-color process.

Film Gauge

Thickness of film. The most common gauge for graphic arts film is 0.004 inch (0.1 mm).

Film Laminate

Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.

Fine Papers

Papers made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as compared to coarse papers and industrial papers. Also called cultural papers and graphic papers.

Fine Screen

Screen with ruling of 150 lines per inch (80 lines per centimeter) or more.

Finish

(1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations.

Finished Size

Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.

Fit

Refers to ability of film to be registered during stripping and assembly. Good fit means that all images register to other film for the same job.

Fixed Costs

Costs that remain the same regardless of how many pieces are printed. Copyrighting, photography and design are fixed costs.

Flat Color

(1) Any color created by printing only one ink, as compared to a color created by printing four-color process. Also called block color and spot color. (2) color that seems weak or lifeless.

Flat Plan (Flats)

Diagram of the flats for a publication showing imposition and indicating colors.

Flat Size

Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.

Flexography

Method of printing on a web press using rubber or plastic plates with raised images. Also called aniline printing because flexographic inks originally used aniline dyes. Abbreviated flexo.

Flood

To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet.

Flush Cover

Cover trimmed to the same size as inside pages, as compared to overhang cover. Also called cut flush

Flyleaf

Leaf, at the front and back of a casebound book that is the one side of the end paper not glued to the case.

Fogging Back

Used in making type more legible by lowering density of an image, while allowing the image to show through.

Foil Emboss

To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.

Foil Stamp

Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp.

Folder

A bindery machine dedicated to folding printed materials.

Fold Marks

With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is to occur, usually located at the top edges.

Foldout

Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout.

Folio (page number)

The actual page number in a publication.

Form

Each side of a signature. Also spelled forme.

Format

Size, style, shape, layout or organization of a layout or printed product.

Form bond

Lightweight bond, easy to perforate, made for business forms. Also called register bond.

Form Roller(s)

Roller(s) that come in contact with the printing plate, bringing it ink or water.

For Position Only

Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction. Abbreviated FPO.

Forwarding

In the case book arena, the binding process which involves folding, rounding, backing, headbanding and reinforcing.

Fountain

Trough or container, on a printing press, that holds fluids such as ink, varnish or water. Also called duct.

Fountain Solution

Mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to the nonimage area. Also called dampener solution.

Four-color Process Printing

Technique of printing that uses black, magenta, cyan and yellow to simulate full-color images. Also called color process printing, full color printing and process printing.

Free Sheet

Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities, as compared to groundwood paper. Also called woodfree paper.

French Fold

A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.

Full-range Halftone

Halftone ranging from 0 percent coverage in its highlights to 100 percent coverage in its shadows.

Full-scale Black

Black separation made to have dots throughout the entire tonal range of the image, as compared to half-scale black and skeleton black. Also called full-range black.

G

Galley Proof

Proof of type from any Source, whether metal type or photo type. Also called checker and slip proof.

Gang

(1) To halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure. (2) To reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously on one sheet of paper during one press run. Also called combination run.

Gate Fold

A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping layers.

Gathered

Signatures assembled next to each other in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to nested. Also called stacked.

Ghost Halftone

Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce a very faint image.

Ghosting

(1) Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear. Chemical ghosting refers to the transfer of the faint image from the front of one sheet to the back of another sheet. Mechanical ghosting refers to the faint image appearing as a repeat of an image on the same side of the sheet. (2) Phenomenon of printed image appearing too light because of ink starvation.

Gilding

Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book.

Gloss

Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish).

Gloss Ink

Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration.

Grade

General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper.

Graduated Screen Tint

Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly, not in distinct steps. Also called degrade, gradient, ramped screen and vignette.

Grain Direction

Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction.

Grain Long Paper

Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper.

Grain Short Paper

Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide web paper.

Grammage

Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm).

Graphic Arts

The crafts, industries and professions related to designing and printing on paper and other substrates.

Graphic Arts Film

Film whose emulsion yields high contrast images suitable for reproduction by a printing press, as compared to continuous-tone film. Also called litho film and repro film.

Graphic Design

Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.

Graphics

Visual elements that supplement type to make printed messages more clear or interesting.

Gravure

Method of printing using metal cylinders etched with millions of tiny wells that hold ink.

Gray Balance

Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that accurately, reproduce a neutral gray image.

Gray Component Replacement

Technique of replacing gray tones in the yellow, cyan and magenta films, made while color separating, with black ink. Abbreviated GCR. Also called achromatic color removal.

Gray Levels

Number of distinct gray tones that can be reproduced by a computer.

Gray Scale

Strip of gray values ranging from white to black. Used by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate exposure times for film and plates. Also called step wedge.

Grind Edge

Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect bound products.

Grindoff

Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding.

Gripper Edge

Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus going first through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge.

Groundwood Paper

Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather than refined chemically.

GSM

The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).

Gutter

In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.

H

Hairline (Rule)

Subjective term referring to very small space, thin line or close register. The meaning depends on who is using the term and in what circumstances.

Half-scale Black

Black separation made to have dots only in the shadows and midtones, as compared to full-scale black and skeleton black.

Halftone

(1) To photograph or scan a continuous tone image to convert the image into halftone dots. (2) A photograph or continuous-tone illustration that has been halftoned and appears on film, paper, printing plate or the final printed product.

Halftone Screen

Piece of film or glass containing a grid of lines that breaks light into dots. Also called contact screen and screen.

Halo Effect

Faint shadow sometimes surrounding halftone dots printed. Also called halation. The halo itself is also called a fringe.

Hard Dots

Halftone dots with no halos or soft edges, as compared to soft dots.

Hard Mechanical

Mechanical consisting of paper and/or acetate and made using paste-up techniques, as compared to electronic mechanical.

Head(er)

At the top of a page, the margin.

Head-to-tail

Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms) of other pages.

Heat-set Web

Web press equipped with an oven to dry ink, thus able to print coated paper.

Hickey

Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called bulls eye and fish eye.

High-fidelity Color

Color reproduced using six, eight or twelve separations, as compared to four-color process.

High-key Photo

Photo whose most important details appear in the highlights.

Highlights

Lightest portions of a photograph or halftone, as compared to midtones and shadows.

Hinged Cover

Perfect bound cover scored 1/8 inch (3mm) from the spine so it folds at the hinge instead of, along the edge of the spine.

HLS

Abbreviation for hue, lightness, saturation, one of the color-control options often found in software, for design and page assembly. Also called HVS.

Hot Spot

Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused incomplete draw-down during contact platemaking, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.

House Sheet

Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety of printing jobs. Also called floor sheet.

Hue

A specific color such as yellow or green.

I

Image Area

The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage,

Imagesetter

Laser output device using photosensitive paper or film.

Imposition

Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.

Impression

(1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.

Impression Cylinder

Cylinder, on a press, that pushes paper against the plate or blanket, thus forming the image. Also called impression roller.

Imprint

To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee's name on business cards. Also called surprint.

Ink Balance

Relationship of the densities and dot gains of process inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral gray

Ink Fountain

Reservoir, on a printing press, that holds ink.

Ink Holdout

Characteristic of paper that prevents it from absorbing ink, thus allowing ink to dry on the surface of the paper. Also called holdout.

Ink Jet Printing

Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.

Inner Form

Form (side of the press sheet) whose images all appear inside the folded signature, as compared to outer form.

In-Plant Printer

Department of an agency, business or association that does printing for a parent organization. Also called captive printer and in-house printer.

Inserts

Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).

Intaglio Printing

Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels, having inked areas lower than noninked areas. Gravure and engraving are the most common forms of intaglio. Also called recess printing.

Integral Proof

Color proof of separations shown on one piece of proofing paper, as compared to an overlay proof. Also called composition proof, laminate proof, plastic proof and single-sheet proof.

Interleaves

Printed pages loosely inserted in a publication.

ISBN

A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on the title page or the back of the title page. Considered an International Standard Book Number.